안동출장안마◐출장부르는법◐안동천호동 마사지(안동용원 안마방)↰《안동청주 마사지》☁안동청소년 안마방┴안동안마방 한국야동↪안동안동 안마방➻안동안산 마사지 추천☠안동안마방 옵션

As UN climate negotiations resume in Bonn, we look at why the crunch Paris climate conference from 30 November to 11 December is so important

카지노사이트
French foreign minister Laurent Fabius talks to delegates during the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change in Bonn, Germany. Photograph: Martin Meissner/AP

안동출장안마♀예약♬안동천호동 마사지(안동마사지 ㅁㅁㄹ)☆《안동신림 아로마 마사지》♬안동신림 마사지サ안동동네 마사지┄안동모텔ス안동양재역 마사지χ안동안마방 노출

The governments of more than 190 nations 강릉대딸 마사지 , aimed at reducing global greenhouse gas emissions and thus avoiding the threat of dangerous climate change.

안동출장안마┷예약═안동천호동 마사지(안동감성 마사지)▧《안동수원역 안마방》☻안동판상근 마사지☇안동안마방 cctv♔안동일본 마사지 노모☻안동군포 마사지☝안동백마 안마방

Current commitments on greenhouse gas emissions run out in 2020, so at Paris governments are expected to produce an agreement on what happens for the decade after that at least, and potentially beyond.

Emissions trajectory Photograph: Guardian

안동출장안마━출장부르는법╟안동천호동 마사지(안동낙성대 마사지)↹《안동실제 안마방》⇄안동강릉 안마방✎안동마사지 porn⇥안동필리핀 마사지☜안동일본 안마방┹안동신림역 안마방

Scientists have warned that if greenhouse gas emissions continue to rise, we will pass the threshold beyond which global warming becomes catastrophic and irreversible. That threshold is estimated as a temperature rise of 2C above pre-industrial levels, and on current emissions trajectories 카지노사이트 . That may not sound like much, but the temperature difference between today’s world and the last ice age was about 5C, so seemingly small changes in temperature can mean big differences for the Earth.

안동출장안마▪24시출장샵➡안동천호동 마사지(안동건강 마사지)イ《안동코코넛오일 마사지》☼안동코 마사지╉안동동탄 마사지◄안동콜걸후기◐안동강남역 마사지↠안동출장 만남 대행

They have: global negotiations on climate change have been carrying on for more than 20 years. The history of climate change goes back much further: in the 19th century, physicists theorised about the role of greenhouse gases, chiefly carbon dioxide, in the atmosphere, and several suggested that the warming effect would increase alongside the levels of these gases in the atmosphere. But this was all theoretical.

Only in the past few decades have scientists begun the measurements necessary to establish a relationship between current carbon levels and temperatures, and the science conducted since then 고령천안역 여관 : that rising greenhouse gas emissions, arising from our use of fossil fuels and our industries, lead to higher temperatures.

안동출장안마⇔예약╕안동천호동 마사지(안동헬로우 드림)➽《안동안마방 짜파게티》◦안동덕소 안마방☆안동김포 안마방┅안동카오산로드 마사지☣안동여성 전용 마사지 알바▣안동범계 안마방

No. Global temperatures have been on a clear upward path. There was a spike in 1998, after which temperatures were lower – 카지노사이트 – that led some climate sceptics to claim that the world was cooling.

안동출장안마안동신천 마사지

  • 김제전주 안마방 가격
  • 안동한국여자 마사지
  • 안동출장안마
  • But it is important to note that temperatures have not fallen, or stalled – they have continued to rise. Given the variations that characterise our weather systems, a period in which the rate of warming slowed is not unexpected.

    For the past two years, the rate of warming seems to have accelerated again , but little can be construed from that.

    안동출장안마┓24시출장샵◄안동천호동 마사지(안동고추 마사지)ェ《안동강아지 마사지》▲안동안마방 모음☠안동에로틱 마사지│안동마사지 트위터☼안동나비야 마사지╣안동마사지 효능

    In 1992, governments met in Rio de Janeiro and 신안안마방 태국 . That agreement, still in force, bound governments to take action to avoid dangerous climate change, but did not specify what actions. Over the following five years, governments wrangled over what each should do, and what should be the role of developed countries versus poorer nations.

    Those years of argument produced, in 1997, 수원출장안마 . That pact required worldwide cuts in emissions of about 5%, compared with 1990 levels, by 2012, and each developed country was allotted a target on emissions reductions. But developing countries, including China, South Korea, Mexico and other rapidly emerging economies, were given no targets and allowed to increase their emissions at will.

    창원출장안마
    제천코 마사지 cpsblog.xyz 진안여수 안마방
    People sign the Earth pledge made at the the UN Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in June 1992. Photograph: UN Photo

    Al Gore, then US vice-president, signed up to the protocol, but it was quickly apparent that it would never be ratified by the US Congress. Legally, the protocol could not come into force until countries representing 55% of global emissions had ratified it. With the US – then the world’s biggest emitter – on the outside, that was not going to happen.

    So for most of the following decade, the Kyoto protocol remained in abeyance and global climate change negotiations ground to a near-halt. But in late 2004, 카지노사이트 – unexpectedly, and as part of a move to have its application for World Trade Organisation membership accepted by the European Union. That made up the weight needed, and the protocol finally came into force.

    안동출장안마❤예약금없는출장샵[안동천호동 마사지(안동남친 안마방)▨《안동장 마사지》ワ안동안마방 몰카┚안동연산 안마방♫안동머리 마사지○안동광주 스타 안마방╡안동필고

    Not quite. The US, under George W Bush, remained firmly outside Kyoto, so although the UN negotiations carried on year after year, the US negotiators were often in different rooms from the rest of the world. It was clear a new approach was needed that could bring the US in, and encourage the major developing economies – especially China, now the world’s biggest emitter – to take on limits to their emissions.

    What followed was, 나주하노이 마사지 an action plan that set the world on the course to a new agreement that would take over from Kyoto.

    안동출장안마«예약금없는출장샵↮안동천호동 마사지(안동천안 카페)┑《안동안마방 하늘이》┨안동비염 마사지♣안동눈 마사지☎안동삼성역 마사지☈안동흥출장안마✓안동전립선 마사지 하는 법

    It did take a long time. But getting agreement from 196 countries was never going to be easy. The next act of this long-running drama fully demonstrated that: the 천안출장샵 .

    금산문산 안마방
    고흥안마방 반말 서울출장샵 태백보라카이 마사지
    US president Barack Obama along with European leaders including German chancellor Angela Merkel, centre, attend negotiations on the final night of the Copenhagen UN Climate Change summit in Denmark on 18 December 2009. Photograph: Pool/Getty Images

    안동출장안마▨출장부르는법ψ안동천호동 마사지(안동고시촌 안마방)▪《안동엉덩이 마사지》╆안동마사지 핸플ニ안동출장タ안동청주 용암동 안마방◁안동마사지ⓔ안동렉시벨 마사지

    Everything but the treaty. All of the world’s developed countries and the biggest developing countries agreed – for the first time – to limits on their greenhouse gas emissions. This was a landmark, as it meant the world’s biggest emitters were united towards a single goal.

    The emissions reductions agreed on were still not enough to meet scientific advice, but they were a big advance on reducing emissions compared with “business as usual”.

    But what didn’t happen turned out to be the point that NGOs and many in the press seized on. 카지노사이트 .

    안동출장안마♀ 출장부르는법✣안동천호동 마사지(안동포항 여관)┍《안동일본 마사지 품번》ス안동전효성 마사지☜안동청량리 안마방┡안동마사지 단속 시간❖안동싱가포르 마사지➚안동대구 여관

    It depends on your viewpoint. The Kyoto protocol was a beautifully written, watertight, fully legally binding international treaty, a sub-treaty of the similarly binding UNFCCC. But it never met its objectives, because it wasn’t ratified by the US, and not by Russia until it was too late. And 광주출장샵 .

    The Copenhagen agreement, on the other hand, was not fully adopted by the UN in 2009 because of last-minute chaos at the conference, though it was ratified the following year 고성마사지 크림 . For this reason, the Copenhagen agreement was derided as a failure by green groups.

    안동출장안마μ출장부르는법♞안동천호동 마사지(안동프리마호텔 마사지)﹄《안동성남 안마방》┙안동태국 마사지 토렌트↺안동국산 안마방⇘안동안마방 단속 일베☛안동서현역 마사지┥안동제주도 안마방

    But the targets agreed at Copenhagen, in the form of a document signed by world leaders, still stand.

    Representatives of governments from more than 190 nations will try to reach an agreement on carbon emissions at the COP 21 Paris climate talks in December. Photograph: COP21

    안동출장안마✄출장부르는법┡안동천호동 마사지(안동부산 사상 출장)♣《안동경주 동천동 안마방》①안동천안역 여관✗안동포항 타이마사지➥안동정준호 안마방☍안동운서동 안마방↔안동서울 여인숙 가격

    We know already what the biggest emitters have committed to. The 남원남편 마사지 , compared with 1990 levels, by 2030. The 서울출장안마 , compared with 2005 levels, by 2025. 전주출장샵 .

    Nations responsible for more than 90% of global emissions have now come up with their targets – 의령광주 터미널 근처 모텔 . These include all of the major developed and developing countries, though their contributions vary: in the case of developed countries, actual cuts in emissions, but for developing countries a range of targets including limits on emissions compared to “business as usual”, and pledges to increase low-carbon energy or preserve forests.

    Analysis of the INDCS, endorsed by the UN, has suggested that 수원출장안마 . That is not quite enough to meet the scientific advice. However, that is not the end of the story. One of the key components of any Paris agreement would be to institute a system of review of the emissions targets every five years, with a view to ratcheting them upwards.

    Another, and complementary, approach is to make more effort to bring down emissions outside the UN process, for instance by engaging “non-state actors” such as cities, local governments and businesses to do more.

    안동출장안마▥24시출장샵◤안동천호동 마사지(안동fc2 마사지)╌《안동대전 커플 마사지》♟안동요방형근 마사지━안동경산 안마방❥안동신림역 안마방►안동아중리 안마방╩안동소라넷 안마방

    Not at all – the other key question, apart from emissions reductions, is finance. Poorer countries want the rich world to provide them with financial help that will enable them to invest in clean technology to cut their greenhouse gas emissions, and to adapt their infrastructure to the likely damage from climate change.

    This is a hugely contentious issue. At Copenhagen, where the finance part of the deal was only sorted out at the very last minute, 군산출장샵 , and they said that by 2020, financial flows of at least $100bn a year would be provided.

    As a cornerstone of any Paris agreement, poor countries want assurances that this pledge will be met. That has now been given, in several forms: 카지노사이트 showing that two thirds of the finance required is already being supplied; and 바카라사이트 showed that the remainder can be made up by increased finance from the World Bank and other development banks, and from the private sector. The World Bank and several governments have already committed to upping their financial assistance, meaning that a clear path towards the 2020 target can now be discerned.

    There is more, however. Poor nations also want a similar provision in place beyond 2020, but there is strong disagreement over how this should be done. Some want all the money to come from rich country governments, but those governments are adamant that they will not provide such funding solely from the public purse. They want international development banks, such as the World Bank, to play a role, and they want most of the funding to come from the private sector.

    An agreement on this is still possible, but it will be one of the main obstacles to a Paris deal.

    안동출장안마U예약✍안동천호동 마사지(안동마사지 추천)╛《안동전주 모텔 가격》┲안동베트남 마사지 가격▶안동주안 안마방❣안동김해 출장 샵α안동어스파→안동하동 안마방

    Yes. The heads of state or government of more than 130 countries have already said they will come. These include Barack Obama of the US, Xi Jinping of China, Narendra Modi of India, Angela Merkel of Germany and David Cameron of the UK. have as yet pulled out as a result of the terrorist attacks on Paris, and security has been stepped up as an assurance. Unlike the Copenhagen talks, however, at which world leaders turned up at the last minute of the two weeks of talks to find their negotiating teams in chaos and without a clear agreement for them to sign, this time the leaders will arrive at the beginning of the conference, give their negotiating teams clear instructions, and expect a fully formed agreement at the end of it.

    On behalf of the French government, the conference will be led by foreign minister Laurent Fabius, and environment minister Segolene Royal, but the French president Francois Hollande will also play a key role. They are all confident that a deal can be made.

    마산공항신도시 마사지
    대구출장안마 담양부산 출장안마 온라인카지노
    French president Francois Hollande. Photograph: Philippe Wojazer /Pool/EPA

    안동출장안마✃예약금없는출장샵┐안동천호동 마사지(안동서울출장안마)↞《안동안마방 찾기》╨안동마사지 영어▶안동화정 마사지█안동에이미 안마방┠안동창동역 마사지↧안동로미 로미 마사지 란

    The key question now is over security. With the French capital under recent attack, and reports of fresh assaults averted by the armed forces, the atmosphere in Paris will be unlike any city that has hosted major international talks before. Security will be paramount - the French police and army will be on the streets, and the venue will be patrolled by uniformed UN guards - but the atrocities of 13 November will hang heavily on all delegates. This may mean that when world leaders attend private meetings, terrorism is discussed before climate change. But it may also mean that delegates are under more pressure than ever to come up with a deal, given the tragic circumstances surrounding them.안동출장안마안동성기 마사지╟안동인천 마사지☵《안동타이 마사지 아로마》안동춘천 마사지 후기┌안동여성 전신 마사지♪안동마사지 19◐안동조건❤천안출장샵출장부르는법안동거유 마사지➹안동서울샵♪【안동송우리 안마방】안동다낭 밤문화 마사지♦안동정왕역 안마방┏안동인천 마사지┯안동새로운 안마방 아가씨 토렌트☺안동출장안마시흥석계 안마방안동연신내 안마방▤안동출장마사지 후기┙(안동목동역 마사지)안동마사지 성추행⇎안동부산 안마방▤안동청소년 안마방ノ안동만남◕안동사천 안마방◑안동pj 안마방✂〔안동유성 마사지〕안동남자 마사지╥안동사우나 마사지♜안동포천 안마방╋안동파주 마사지☭안동동탄 안마방↪안동콜걸샵➳《안동콜걸》안동이상근 마사지☺안동안마방 동영상↥안동대전 출장안마⊿안동아중리 안마방➼안동중국 마사지 체험기☪안동안마방 리뷰♧〔안동마사지 ssul〕안동부천역 안마방↺안동일본 보빨™안동하남 마사지➽안동이태원 안마방√예약태백마포구 안마방예약금없는출장샵안동왁싱 마사지╮안동마사지 대딸①‹안동창동역 마사지›안동신주쿠 마사지◊안동신림 마사지◄안동대구 출장마사지➺안동턱근육 마사지┵안동출장안마안동출장안마카지노사이트안동필리핀 안마방안동방이동 마사지안동사각턱 마사지안동호치민 1군 마사지안동출장안마안동마사지 서비스»안동마사지 남친♠<안동에이스 안마방>안동마사지 움짤λ안동아주동 마사지┴안동산남동 마사지═안동포항 안마방⇉평창타이 아로마 마사지

    If nations can meet and agree equitable goals on the climate, in these circumstances, it will be a triumph for international cooperation, for our wellbeing and security, and for faith in the future, in the face of forces who wish to destroy all three.

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